TELSAT marKoni FM Transmitter | CISA


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1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  • CVSS v4 9.3
  • ATTENTION: Exploitable remotely/low attack complexity/public exploits are available
  • Vendor: marKoni
  • Equipment: Markoni-D (Compact) FM Transmitters, Markoni-DH (Exciter+Amplifiers) FM Transmitters
  • Vulnerabilities: Command Injection, Use of Hard-coded Credentials, Use of Client-Side Authentication, Improper Access Control

2. RISK EVALUATION

Successful exploitation of these vulnerabilities could allow an attacker to tamper with the product to bypass authentication or perform remote code execution.

3. TECHNICAL DETAILS

3.1 AFFECTED PRODUCTS

The following versions of TELSAT marKoni FM Transmitters are affected:

  • Markoni-D (Compact) FM Transmitters: All versions prior to 2.0.1
  • Markoni-DH (Exciter+Amplifiers) FM Transmitters: All versions prior to 2.0.1

3.2 Vulnerability Overview

3.2.1 IMPROPER NEUTRALIZATION OF SPECIAL ELEMENTS USED IN A COMMAND (‘COMMAND INJECTION’) CWE-77

TELSAT marKoni FM Transmitters are vulnerable to a command injection vulnerability through the manipulation of settings and could allow an attacker to gain unauthorized access to the system with administrative privileges.

CVE-2024-39373 has been assigned to this vulnerability. A CVSS v3.1 base score of 9.8 has been calculated; the CVSS vector string is (AV:N/AC:L/PR:N/UI:N/S:U/C:H/I:H/A:H).

A CVSS v4 score has also been calculated for CVE-2024-39373. A base score of 9.3 has been calculated; the CVSS vector string is (CVSS4.0/AV:N/AC:L/AT:N/PR:N/UI:N/VC:H/VI:H/VA:H/SC:N/SI:N/SA:N).

3.2.2 USE OF HARD-CODED CREDENTIALS CWE-798

TELSAT marKoni FM Transmitters are vulnerable to an attacker exploiting a hidden admin account that can be accessed through the use of hard-coded credentials.

CVE-2024-39374 has been assigned to this vulnerability. A CVSS v3.1 base score of 9.8 has been calculated; the CVSS vector string is (AV:N/AC:L/PR:N/UI:N/S:U/C:H/I:H/A:H).

A CVSS v4 score has also been calculated for CVE-2024-39374. A base score of 9.3 has been calculated; the CVSS vector string is (CVSS4.0/AV:N/AC:L/AT:N/PR:N/UI:N/VC:H/VI:H/VA:H/SC:N/SI:N/SA:N).

3.2.3 USE OF CLIENT-SIDE AUTHENTICATION CWE-603

TELSAT marKoni FM Transmitters are vulnerable to an attacker bypassing authentication and gaining administrator privileges.

CVE-2024-39375 has been assigned to this vulnerability. A CVSS v3.1 base score of 9.8 has been calculated; the CVSS vector string is (AV:N/AC:L/PR:N/UI:N/S:U/C:H/I:H/A:H).

A CVSS v4 score has also been calculated for CVE-2024-39375. A base score of 9.3 has been calculated; the CVSS vector string is (CVSS4.0/AV:N/AC:L/AT:N/PR:N/UI:N/VC:H/VI:H/VA:H/SC:N/SI:N/SA:N).

3.2.4 IMPROPER ACCESS CONTROL CWE-284

TELSAT marKoni FM Transmitters are vulnerable to users gaining unauthorized access to sensitive information or performing actions beyond their designated permissions.

CVE-2024-39376 has been assigned to this vulnerability. A CVSS v3.1 base score of 9.8 has been calculated; the CVSS vector string is (AV:N/AC:L/PR:N/UI:N/S:U/C:H/I:H/A:H).

A CVSS v4 score has also been calculated for CVE-2024-39376. A base score of 9.3 has been calculated; the CVSS vector string is (CVSS4.0/AV:N/AC:L/AT:N/PR:N/UI:N/VC:H/VI:H/VA:H/SC:N/SI:N/SA:N).

3.3 BACKGROUND

  • CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE SECTORS: Communications
  • COUNTRIES/AREAS DEPLOYED: Worldwide
  • COMPANY HEADQUARTERS LOCATION: Italy

3.4 RESEARCHER

CISA discovered a public Proof of Concept (PoC) as authored by Gjoko Krstic and reported it to marKoni.

4. MITIGATIONS

Markoni has released the following version to remediate these vulnerabilities:

TELSAT marKoni FM Transmitter: Version 2.0.1.

For more information, contact Markoni.

CISA recommends users take defensive measures to minimize the risk of exploitation of these vulnerabilities, such as:

  • Minimize network exposure for all control system devices and/or systems, ensuring they are not accessible from the internet.
  • Locate control system networks and remote devices behind firewalls and isolating them from business networks.
  • When remote access is required, use more secure methods, such as Virtual Private Networks (VPNs), recognizing VPNs may have vulnerabilities and should be updated to the most current version available. Also recognize VPN is only as secure as the connected devices.

CISA reminds organizations to perform proper impact analysis and risk assessment prior to deploying defensive measures.

CISA also provides a section for control systems security recommended practices on the ICS webpage on cisa.gov/ics. Several CISA products detailing cyber defense best practices are available for reading and download, including Improving Industrial Control Systems Cybersecurity with Defense-in-Depth Strategies.

CISA encourages organizations to implement recommended cybersecurity strategies for proactive defense of ICS assets.

Additional mitigation guidance and recommended practices are publicly available on the ICS webpage at cisa.gov/ics in the technical information paper, ICS-TIP-12-146-01B–Targeted Cyber Intrusion Detection and Mitigation Strategies.

Organizations observing suspected malicious activity should follow established internal procedures and report findings to CISA for tracking and correlation against other incidents.

No known public exploitation specifically targeting these vulnerabilities has been reported to CISA at this time.

5. UPDATE HISTORY

  • June 27, 2024: Initial Publication

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